Saturday, August 20, 2016

Results of DrenchRite® Test

A pooled fecal sample was collected from the goats on August 3. It was sent to Dr. Ray Kaplan's lab at the University of Georgia for a DrenchRite® test. A DrenchRite® test determines whether barber pole worms from a manure sample are resistant or susceptible to the three classes of dewormers commonly used in goats. The test also determines the fecal egg count of the sample and identifies the type of parasites in the sample.

The fecal egg count of the pooled sample was 2700 epg. In comparison, the average fecal egg count of the individual samples collected on August 3 was 1940 ± 1865 epg. The sample contained 95 percent barber pole worm (Haemonchus contortus) and 5 percent Trichostrongylus/Teladorsagia, with some Strongyloides. In comparison, samples collected from the goats upon arrival (on June 23-24) contained 70 percent Haemonchus.

The DrenchRite® test showed that a significant portion of the worm population (in the manure sample) was resistant to all three dewormer classes.  However, the actual efficacy of anthelmintic treatment could be anywhere from 0 to 95 percent. If resistance is low, the drug may still be highly effective. 

Combination treatments (2 or more drugs) may also result in an effective treatment. In other countries, products containing multiple drug combinations are commercially available. In the US, it is necessary to use different drugs sequentially, as is done when the goats arrive to the test site.  Combining dewormer use with the administration of copper oxide wire particles (COWPs) may also result in an effective treatment.


Dewormer class Trade names Resistance status
Benzimidazole (BZ) Panacur®, SafeGuard®, Valbazen® Resistant
Levamisole (LEV) Tramisol®, Levasol®, Prohibit®, LevaMed®
Resistant
Ivermectin (IVM) Ivomec®, Eprinex®, Dectomax® Resistant
Moxidectin (MOX) Cydectin® Resistant

Read article about DrenchRite® Assay Test

Friday, August 19, 2016

Midpoint of Test

The Western Maryland Pasture-Based Meat Goat Performance Test is now past its midway point. Day-42 data was collected on August 18.

Gain ranged from -7.0 to 6 lbs. and averaged 1.1 ± 2.6 lbs. The large standard deviation is indicative of a wide spread in growth performance. The median gain was 1.6 lbs.  Average daily gain (ADG) ranged from -0.467 to 0.400 lbs. per day and averaged 0.071 ± 0.176 lbs. per day. The median ADG was 0.107 lbs. per day. The top gainer for the weigh period was 631 (Guffy, MO).

649 is the current top-performing buck (Murphy, NJ)
We named him "Boomer."

For the first 42 days of the test, average daily gain ranged from -0.264 to 0.317 lbs. per day and averaged 0.102 ± 0.115 lbs. per day.  Again, the large standard deviation is indicative of a wide spread in growth performance. While sixteen bucks have gained over 0.2 lbs. per day, another sixteen have failed to gain any weight. For the first 42 days of the test, the top gaining buck is 649 (Murphy).

FAMACHA© scores on August 18 ranged from 1 to 4 and averaged 2.14 ± 0.68. The median FAMACHA© score was 2. Eleven goats were dewormed with levamisole (Prohibit® concentrated drench @ 3 ml/50 lbs.) and 1 gram of copper oxide wire particles. A few other goats were given just copper oxide wire particles (1g).

624 is another top-performer (Gamby, OH)
We named him "Louie."

Body condition, coat condition, dag, and fecal consistency scores remained relatively unchanged and  averaged 2.25
± 0.28 (median 2.25), 2.04 ± 0.16 (median 2.0), 0.19 ± 0.51 (median 0), and 1.11 ± 0.39 (median 1), respectively. On average, feces were drier and there was less evidence of any scouring. 

Individual fecal samples were collected from the rectum of each goat. Sufficient samples could not be obtained from two goats. A pooled sample will be collected on September 1 for another larvae ID. The second larvae ID (from the sample collected on August 1) revealed a Haemonchus percentage of 95 percent, up from 70 percent on June 23-24.

Grazing on August 11
 
This past week was not as hot and humid as the previous several weeks. Recent summer storms have led to some respiratory issues. The goats are currently regrazing a paddock of mixed annuals and forbs. Forage is plentiful.

Download August 18 (d-42) Report (revised 8.22.16)

Wednesday, August 17, 2016

Visitors from Tennessee

The Western Maryland Pasture-Based Meat Goat Test hosted a group of Extension Agents from Tennessee. The group visited the test as part of a multi-day educational tour, which also included a visit to the New Holland Sales Stables (PA), the largest sheep and goat market in the eastern half of the United States.


After Texas, Tennessee ranks second in the number of goats raised. This year's test includes two consigners from Tennessee:  Jarrett and Maynard/Dishman.

Monday, August 15, 2016

Fecal Egg Counts from August 3

For the samples collected on August 3, fecal egg counts ranged from 25 to 10850 epg and averaged 1940 ± 1865 epg. The median fecal egg count was 1550 epg.

As compared to two weeks ago, the average FEC  was slightly lower (1940 vs. 2100 epg), the standard deviation was significantly lower (1865 vs. 2957 epg), and the median was higher (1550 vs. 1125 epg).


Fifty-eight (58) goats or 62 percent had fecal egg counts above 1000 epg, compared to 50 percent two weeks ago.  Thirty-three (33) goats or 35 percent had fecal egg counts above 2000 epg, similar to two weeks ago. 2000 epg is often classified as "clinically significant" for the barber pole worm.

Thirty-one (31) or 33 percent of the goats had egg counts between 2000 and 5000 epg. Four goats had egg counts above 5000 epg, compared to two weeks ago.

A fecal egg count reduction (FECR) was calculated for 6/9 goats which were dewormed on July 21. It varied from -2 to -91%. Evidence continues to support widespread anthelmintic resistance.

Getting a back rub

Previously, goats requiring deworming were drenched with levamisole + albendazole. Levamisole (Prohibit®) tends to be the most effective dewormer on most goat (and sheep) farms. On August 18, copper oxide wire particles (COWPs) will be used as the second dewormer. Parasitized goats will receive 1 g of COWPs, in addition to levamisole (3 ml concentrated drench per 50 lbs.). Two years ago, COWPs (0.5 g) reduced fecal egg counts by ~82 percent in the test goats.

The fecal egg count of the pooled sample (collected August 3) submitted to the University of Georgia for the DrenchRite assay was 2700 epg. The DrenchRite assay will determine anthelmintic resistance to all dewormers/classes (benzimidazoles + avermectins + moxidectin + and levamisole). It takes about a month to get the results.

Download August 3 Fecal Egg Count Report (revised 8/16/16)

Monday, August 8, 2016

Variable Performance Among Contest Goats

For the first 28 days, performance varied considerably among the 15 contest goats. The standard deviation for gain and ADG was almost three times the averages. Gain varied from -8.5 to 17 lbs. and averaged 2.6 ± 7.2 lbs. The median was 3.0 lbs.

ADG ranged from -0.315 to 0.630 lbs. per day and averaged 0.095 ± 0.268 lbs. per day. The median ADG was 0.111 lbs. per day. Five of the goats lost weight during the first 28 days of the contest. It is difficult to explain.

In contrast, the contest goats gained an average of 6.9 lbs. during the 13-day adjustment period.  For the first 28 days, the contest goats had a slightly lower ADG than the test goats. 

The contest goats are consuming about 1 pound of barley per head per day. The test goats are consuming 0.75 lbs. of barley per head per day. Both groups have free choice forage.

Download contest 28-day report

Wednesday, August 3, 2016

Day 28

For the second 14-day period, weight gain ranged from -5.2 to 6.2 lbs. and averaged 1.1 ± 2.3 lbs. The median gain was 0.8 lbs. ADG ranged from -0.400 to 0.477 lbs. per day and averaged 0.086 ± 0.175 lbs. per day. The median ADG was 0.062 lbs. per day. The large standard deviations indicate that there was considerable difference in gain among the 95 bucks in the test.

For the July 21-Aug 3 weigh period, the top gaining goat was 649 (Murphy, NJ). Four other goats gained 0.4 lbs. per day or more:  640 (Loos, IL), 648 (Murphy), 662 (Peters, NC) and 687 (Weber, IL).
There are three mineral feeders in the laneway.

For the first 28 days of the test, ADG ranged from -0.285 to 0.415 lbs. per day and averaged 0.118 ± 0.128 lbs. per day. The median gain was 0.122 lbs. per day. The top gaining goat is 639 (Loos).  Five other goats are gaining more than 0.3 lbs. per day:  621 (Francis, VT), 647 (Mulhall, KY), 649 (Murphy), 687 (Weber), and 689 (Whelan, KY)l.

FAMACHA© scores ranged from 1 to 3 and averaged 1.9 ± 0.6. The median FAMACHA© score was 2. Nine goats were dewormed, mostly because of the new treatment protocol which results in deworming any goat with a FAMACHA© score of 3 that loses weight during the previous 14 days. Another goat was dewormed a few days earlier. It had a FAMACHA© score of 4.
Water is kept under the hoop house to keep it cool.

Body condition, dag, and fecal consistency scores were similar to two weeks ago, averaging 2.3 ±  0.3, 2.0 ± 0.1, and 1.2 ± 0.5, respectively. Median scores were 2.3, 2.0, and 0.5, respectively. The relatively low standard deviations indicate that there was not much variation in these scores.

Fecal samples were collected from each goat. Samples could not be obtained from four goats. Two attempts are made to obtain a fecal sample from each goat. A pooled sample was collected from random goats. It was sent to the University of Georgia for a DrenchRite® test.  It will take about a month to get the results, which will include pooled fecal egg count, larvae ID, and resistance to anthelmintics (dewormers).
Usually the goats are on top of the spool.

The goats currently have access to one acre of orchardgrass and one acre of regrowth of the summer annual mix (mostly BMR pearl millet + Sunn Hemp). They are consuming approximately 0.75 lbs. of supplement (whole barley) per head per day. The goats will be worked next on Thursday, August 18. They were worked a day earlier this time, due to a scheduling conflict.

Download August 3 (day 28) report

Tuesday, August 2, 2016

Rising Egg Counts

Fecal egg counts for the July 23rd collection ranged from 0 to 19600 epg and averaged 2100 ± 2975 epg. The median egg count was 1125 epg. This is a significant increase from two weeks prior (July 7) when egg counts averaged 776 epg.  

The standard deviation was also significantly higher, indicating a wider variation in egg counts:  2957 vs. 1340. The median was also significantly higher, indicating more goats with high egg counts:  1125 vs. 129.
Which goats have high egg counts?
You can't tell by looking

Forty-eight (50%) goats had fecal egg counts above 1000 epg.  Thirty (31%) goats had fecal egg counts above 2000 epg.  Eleven (11%) goats  had fecal egg counts above 5000 epg.

While the paddocks planted in annual forages shouldn't be a significant source of parasite infection (L3 larvae), the goats have continuous access to the central laneway, which contains short grass. They have also had access to the silvopasture which is planted mostly in MaxQ™ tall fescue.

In addition to individual fecal samples, a pooled fecal sample will be collected on August 3. It will be submitted to the University of Georgia for a DrenchRite®  test. The DrenchRite®  test is a laboratory test that determines resistance to all anthelmintics (dewormers) simultaneously. Other pooled samples are submitted to Virginia State University for larave ID. Virginia State University also does individual fecal egg counts for the test.

On July 23, 635 had a FEC of only 100 epg

As a safeguard against anthelmintic resistance, any goat that requires deworming will be treated with levamisole (Prohibit®), plus copper oxide wire particles (COWPs).

Download July 23 Fecal Egg Count Report